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Времето, Варна

 

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Българските манастири в:
Рила Планина, Пирин Планина, Родопи , Балкан (Стара Планина) , Витоша , Скални манастири

 

Първите манастири се появяват около столиците или по големите градове през 9 - 10 век -близо до Плиска , Велики Преслав , Охрид и Атон.През 10 век се появяват и първите отдалечени от селища манастири като Рилския (включен в списъка на UNESKO за природно и културно наследство) а по късно и Лесновския манастир(11-12 в.след  Хр.).През периода на Византийското владичество (1018-1186 г.), манастирите пазят българското национално съзнание , език и култура които по късно процъфтяват по време на второто българско царство. Първите скални църкви и манастири се основават през 10 в. Такива се намират близо до Иваново в долината на Русенск Лом (включен в списъка на UNESKO за природно и културно наследство), Близо до Алфатар , Крепча , Карлуково и в долината на Суха Река. Манастири като Св. Троица , Св. Богородица в Търново , и манастирите в  Клифаарево , Батошево , Земен, и  Драгалевци датират от същия период.Първите монашеско църковни общности  възниква в Търновско с център Свети четиридесет мъченици,около Сливен и Асеновград . Известната Мала Света Гора край София се състояла от 14 манастира някои от които са деистващи и днес.

След падането на България под турско робство (14-19 в.) много манастири биват разрушени и опустели. През втората половина на 15 в. Хората започват да ги възсаховяват и да изграждат нови.По време на националното възраждане манастирите в Рила, Бачково , Преображение и Троян са поправени и разширени. До началото на 19 в.  Манастирите остават центрове на културата. Те имали библиотеки в които се е запазила част от българската литература когато библиотеките на владетелите биват разграбени и онищожени по време на робството.

 

The Golden Age of Art
The rulers' protection and generous donations to the church and scholars, after the conversion to Christianity and during the Second Bulgarian Kingdom, led to the development of architecture and art (wall-painting, icon painting, and woodcarving). Art schools emerged. Icon painting flourished, but only few icons from this period have survived, unfortunately.

The 9th - 11 th century miniatures were made in the Byzantine handwritten book style, and in the 13th century, the manuscripts were still few in numbers. In the 14th century, outstanding examples of iconography and miniatures in the so-called Paleologue style were created. The vestiges of medieval Bulgarian writings Bulgarian literature in Slavonic are kept in museums all over the world today. A few of the many significant works include the ancient Zograph Gospel (10th century - displayed in Saint Petersburg), the beautiful Asemanii's Gospel (10th - 11th century displayed at the Vatican), the Sinai Prayer Book (11th century - displayed in Sinai), Klotz's Collection (11th century, Trento, Innsbruck), the Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander (also called the London Gospel, 1355 - 56, British Museum, London; it is the most richly decorated Bulgarian manuscript, the high peak in the development of medieval Bulgarian miniature painting, with 366 color miniatures depicting the royal family), Manasiis Chronicle (1344 - 47; it is one of the most significant works of the medieval translation literature, with five copies kept in Moscow, the Vatican, Romania, the Hilendar Monastery, Saint Petersburg), the uniquely decorated Tomich Psalter (circa 1360, Moscow) and many others. The importance of medieval Bulgarian literature is illustrated by the following story: the famous Rheims Gospel (11th - 14th century, Rheims, France) used during the coronation ceremonies of French kings is an old Russian copy of a Bulgarian gospel.

The Bulgarian Renaissance
During the Bulgarian Renaissance, the depictions of Bulgarian saints and spiritual leaders appeared in wall paintings; Ivan Rilski, Cyril and Methodius, Clement of Ochrid, and George of Sofia are all depicted. In order to comply with Ottoman law, churches had to have a humble outward appearance and had to be lower than neighboring mosques. Because of this, most of them are halfdug into the ground. National pride, however, is expressed through the decorations in the interiors. Artistic schools emerged during this period, including the schools of Triavna, Bansko, Debur and Samokov. Woodcarving reached its zenith. The fame of Kalofer woodcarvers spread. In addition to the unique woodcarved iconostases thrones in churches and monasteries, woodcarving was introduced to private houses as well. There were whole families of builders, painters and woodcarvers (Usta Kolio Ficheto; Dimiter and Zachari Zograph; Zachari, Ivan, Nikola, Stanislav Dospevski; Ivan and Nikola Obrazopisov; Papa Vitan Senior and Junior; Tzoniovi; Zacharievtzi and many others). The iconostases of the Sveta Bogoroditza church in Pazardjik, the metropolitan church in Samokov and the churches in Gabrovo, Plovdiv, Arbanasi, Triavna, Kilifarevo, Preobrazhenie monastery, Batoshevski monastery, Drianovo, Biala Cherkva, Svishtov and Silistra are of high artistic value.

Churches in Commemoration
After the Liberation in 1878, temples were erected to commemorate the victory and the fallen soldiers - St Alexander Nevski in Sofia, the church in the town of Shipka, the cathedral Sveta Bogoroditza in Varna, and Sveti Sedmochisfenitzi in Sofia. Churches that are more recent include Vanga's church in Rupite, the church in the Rhodopes village of Nedelino, and the church and chapel in the Krastova Gora in the Rhodopes. The St George Rotunda in Sofia (4th century cultural building) and the 11 th century church Sveti loan Predtecha in Kurdzhali (St John the Precursor), which is one of the most important Christian complexes on the Balkan Peninsula, a Byzantine bishops residence during the 11 th - 14th century - were recently restored and put back to operation.


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Last update: Wed, 22 August, 2007 16:39